The professions of architecture and landscape
Article 1 of the Law of 3 January 1977 on architecture recalls that architecture is an expression of culture and that its interventions are of public interest. In France, the law requires the use of an architect listed on the Order’s register for any architectural project submitted for a building permit. Natural persons wishing to build or modify a private building for themselves below a floor area of 150 m² are exempt from this obligation.
The architect’s missions are diversified: from the design and construction of buildings and intervention on existing buildings to urban, rural and landscape projects; from architectural research and the prevention of major risks in construction to assistance to project management; from the dissemination of architectural and urban culture to the design or professions of public decision-makers in the services of the State and local authorities.
THE ARCHITECT: A PROJECT DESIGNER
The projects entrusted to the architect can concern new constructions, rehabilitations, urban and landscaping, etc. They can result from a private order of the willing or from a public competition. The architect (project manager) carries them out on behalf of a sponsor (project owner) and ensures compliance with the budget envelope and regulations in terms of safety, structures and construction implementation, accessibility and sustainable development. Architects also enter new fields of practice, such as assistance to the project owner, or integrate the professional environment of the project owner.
THE ARCHITECT’S PARTNERS
It is possible to distinguish the service providers involved in the design of the project within the project management team of which the architect is the agent (technical design offices, construction economists, landscape designers, urban planners, sociologists, etc.) and those in charge of building construction work (construction companies, craftsmen).
A STATE DIPLOMA, VARIOUS STATUTES
To hold the title of architect, you must hold the State Diploma of Architect (“Architect with a State Diploma” - ADE) and the Authorisation to Exercise Project Management in your own name (HMONP). You must also produce a certificate of professional civil insurance, respect the rules of ethics and be registered in the regional table of theOrder of architects. The architect in charge may work as an individual in a liberal form, or as a partner in an architectural company, or as an employee of an architect or an architectural company. He may also take competitions for the public service of the State or the territorial public service. Project management is exercised in companies, with institutional investors of private or public real estate (companies of mixed economy, organizations HLM), public authorities (State, local authorities, etc.)
The landscape designer applies the project approach to the landscape domain. This concept of “landscape” is understood more broadly than the design of “parks and gardens”. The landscaper designs and follows the realization of projects in spatial, cultural and social contexts at different scales. It intervenes in the development of public and urban spaces, contemporary and historic gardens, spaces dedicated to traffic, energy-related networks, abandoned sites, tourist sites, heritage and protected sites, rural areas. His knowledge touches on plant properties, construction techniques, materials, perspective, topography.