Intangible Cultural Heritage and Regional Natural Parks
Regional Natural Parks (NRP) are created to protect and enhance large rural inhabited areas. A predominantly rural area can be classified as PNR when its landscapes, natural environments and cultural heritage are of high quality, but their balance is fragile. The NRPs are part of a concerted project of sustainable development, based on the protection and enhancement of its natural and cultural heritage.
Regional Natural Parks: a formula for ecological and cultural revitalization of the territory.
The Minister of Agriculture, Edgar Pisani, considered that the National Parks formula was sufficiently restrictive to put in place as early as 1964. creation of Regional Natural Parks in a vision wanting to put the environment and natural spaces at the heart of French life.
In conjunction with the Delegation for Spatial Planning (DATAR), a decree is signed March 1, 1967 by the President of the Republic Charles de Gaulle. The law n°93-24 of 8 January 1993 on the protection and enhancement of landscapes allows to give legal support to the Charters of Parks.
Article 2 announced their support to environmental protection, spatial planning, economic and social development and public education and training. They constitute a privileged framework for actions carried out by public authorities for the preservation of landscapes and natural and cultural heritage ».
There are today 58 regional nature parks in France, which represent 16.5% of the French territory, more than 4700 municipalities, more than 9 million hectares and more than 4.4 million inhabitants.
It is the preservation of natural, cultural and human resources (popular traditions, technical know-how) that is the basis of the PNR development project.
These spaces are created on places who need to be ecologically revitalized and economically and can become “green lungs” in the national territory.
Les five criteria PNR (R 333-4 of the Environment Code) intertwine culture and nature:
- The quality and identity of the territory, of his natural heritage and cultural, as well as its landscapes representing for the region or regions concerned a remarkable ensemble but fragile and threatened, and comprising a nationally recognized interest ;
- The coherence and the relevance of the limits of the territory with regard to this heritage and these landscapes taking into account elements that may impair their quality and value, as well as existing or planned protection and development arrangements;
- The quality du draft charter, its development project based on the protection and the heritage development and its landscapes;
- Thecommitment essential of the communities and public institutions;
- The ability of theorganism responsible for the development and management of the regional natural park in drive the project consistently.
In 2007, the NRPs adopted the strategic framework Horizon 2020 This has four main objectives:
- Preserve and value des living heritage ;
- Share a life plan with men and women;
- Do live a culture “Regional Natural Park”;
- Make the Charter a territorial contract.
NRPs therefore respond to several objectives to protect heritage, to contribute to local life, to encourage and innovate economic activity.
The Framework Convention 2018-2021 provides that the companies and the industries present in these territories must meet a economic commitment to sustainable development and ofgreen economy in the ' framework of regional and sub-regional contracts ».
Regional Natural Parks involved in safeguarding intangible cultural heritage
NRPs must respond to a desire to conservation of the material and intangible culture through actions on access to it for local populations. Thus, this policy promotes the issue of the public and the territory.
The first Protocol of 1984, renewed in 1990, promotes the creation, the diffusion, as well as the cultural and artistic practice in accordance with the arrangements concerning the rural world.
In order to carry out the actions, the parks carry out partnerships with the main actors, such as the associations (as Rural Families, the National Association of Itinerant Cinemas) , the Cultural Policy Coordination and Innovation Service, the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs (DRAC) and finally the Ministry of Culture.
These partnerships have led to the CIP inventory by the Ministry of Culture with three NRPs : the French Gâtinais, the Oise Pays de France and finally the French Vexin.
Gâtinais French Regional Natural Park
The first territory concerned is the regional natural park Spoiled Frenchman where there is a density of know-how, such as the use of aromatic and medicinal plants. This tradition is reinforced by theorizing, for example, through a Conservatory Aromatic and medicinal perfumed plants and a market herbalist in Milly la Forêt. A school project is also in progress. Other craft communities are present as for example the production area of Watercress or honeydew.
Oise Pays de France
The second regional park inventoried is theOise Country of France where a small production network of the black lace, thanks to a lace museum and one of the last lace makers in the region. In addition to this local production, the park active mushroom farms.
The French Vexin
Finally, the French vexin had a local party, the Petillon, during which softwood trees were hung and burned in front of the cafe entrances on the first Saturday of September. From now on, a few local events remain: the pilgrimage of Saint-Clair-Sur-Epte, the bonfire party in Evecquemont, which has existed since revolutionary times, or scarecrow festival at harvest museum in Sagy.
To reaffirm the place of rural communes in their environment, the government is setting up a political of revitalization des town centresin partnership with the Regional Natural Parks. These actions provide a dynamisation and of collectivity within the rural settlements.
Testimonies of a cultural renaissance.
The fact that a territory is classified as Regional Natural Parks allows it to value its intangible heritage.
In the Caps and Marais d'Opale Regional Natural Park, strong personalities knew how to safeguard their intangible cultural heritage. Following the example of Patrick Bedague, farmer, mayor of the municipality of Tilques, president of the agglomeration community and vice-president of the Regional Natural Park which advocates the will to preserve local agricultural know-how in one of the last market garden marshes in France. » via the culture of Tilques.
The culture of Tilques nearly disappeared in the 1990s, Patrick Bedague decided to revitalize production in 2003. He is now president of the association of carrot producers of Tilques named Values of the Park since 1996. In addition, it has successfully completed a torchis rehabilitation project in the field of traditional housing construction.
Since 2010, the Catalan Pyrenees Regional Natural Park has implemented actions to training for municipal employees and residents of the territory in order to transmit the know-how related to the construction in dry stone. It thus participates in the transmission of know-how and participatory projects have already contributed to the restoration of some fifteen walls.