If the investigations on architecture of the second twentieth century are now about ten years old, this heritage remains largely less recognized by the edility and the public, hence the interest of the censuses and monographs proposed here. Logically, after the census phase, which delimited the corpus of ensembles and residencies in Marseilles in its extension, the aim was to reduce their contours in order to develop a greater understanding, formalized by the monograph sheets. By definition, they reflect only one object of the corpus, but all the monographs thus constitute a collection covering a series of similar objects allowing the construction of typologies, classifications and comparisons.
1.1544 - Kalliste Park
Notre-Dame Limite, 15th arrondissement, north of the city
Literature references: 20th century heritage, domestic architecture
X edition directory number: 1544, p 47. 2005
Conception & writing T. Durousseau arch. 2007
designation: Kalliste Park
chemin des Bourrely, chemin de la Bigotte, quartier Notre-Dame Limite 13015
Lambert 3: latitude 3.02977; longitude 43.3861
Access: bus no. 26: Bougainville - La Martine, bus no. 96: Estaque Gare - Hôpital Nord, bus no. 97: Canebière Bourse - Hôpital Nord
Owner: Syndicat des Copropriétaires du Parc Kalliste
Trustees: Dominici, 3 rue Breteuil 13006, Crozet, 21 rue Sylvabelle, 13006
program: Housing group of 752 dwellings.
Contracting authority: S. A. Kalliste Park.
Set of 9 buildings (A to I). Originally 120 parking spaces. School group, gymnasium, shopping centre. Valcorme bastide pavilion, 19th century.
dates, authors: Studies: 1955. Delivery: 1958.
A. H. de Vallaurie and Claude Gros, architects DPLG.
Habitat Improvement Operation, 2003.
site: Former Valcorme bastide. Steep terrain (35.00 m elevation) crossed by the Maillans ravine, monumental amphitheatre character. Pine forest originally preserved in the project. Plot 7.5 ha originally. Sector S on the Master Urban Plan of 1949.
mass plane: In extension, composed around the talweg, according to wind direction.
Progressive spreading between the bottom of the field (R+4) and the top (R+16).
Shopping center on the edge of the public domain. Internalised school group. The pine forest is the real centre of the project, with a few trees left today.
frame: Very tapered bars (10.50 m: "planks"), spans of 3.50 m and 2.65 m not through. Through housing, 2 per level, distribution by battery cages. All concrete construction, elements of prefabricated facades as slabs of washed pebbles. Armored facade (weft and warp) dominant horizontal, without functional expression. Poor condition of interior equipment.
cf. notice: 1545 - La Granière
sources: AD: 2071 W 15 (45.991), 165 W 497, 498
TPFE T42, UP Marseille, Luminy
L'Hebdo, 22 December 2004
Claude Gros, Kulbach éditions, Marseille, 1981
It is a private program financed by capital of Indochinese timber companies, repatriated in 1954. The study started by the architect A. H. de Vallaurie, is then taken over by Claude Gros, the real author of the project.
The plot of approximately 7.5 ha, is part of the former Valcorne bastide, of which there remains a brick pavilion dating from the late 19th century.
The amphitheatre site, bordered by the Chemin des Bourely and the Chemin de la Bigotte, is crossed by the Maillans ravine and covered with a pine forest. The terrain is uneven with slopes of 45%, and has 35.00 m of altitude difference between building D and building H.
The rules of the Master Plan of Urbanism of 1949 define an area S on the bank of natural areas of the hills where densification can be postponed in piedmont. The size of the plot allowed the construction of 600 dwellings. On arrival, we will have 25% more dwellings, on a reduced right of way of half; the real density is 180 dwellings/ha. Despite the monumental character of the site and the composition, the impression remains that of a plan of aerated mass.
The general orientation north-north-west and south-south-east is determined by the direction of the mistral.
The mass plane is open, without alignment or redeployment, without courtyard or axial perspective, all buildings are bars or boards: it is a plan said in extension. Maintaining the continuity of the ravine separates the operation into two parts joined by the overall composition. This type of talweg forms the bed of a rather violent torrent during large thunderstorms, common in Marseille.
The floor composition of the platforms mesh, that is, they form separate but not isolated entities. Meshes are groups of buildings that house various elements of the program. The pavilion of the former bastide in the pine forest remains at the geometric center of the device.
The small shopping centre is located on the edge of the group, at the corner of the Bourely and Bigotte roads. Here he accompanies an esplanade on the crossroads and thus escapes the central model villagers, which allowed the shops to survive until then. The school group, kindergarten, primary and gymnasium, is organized in a small city behind building D to the west on the Bourely road.
The establishment of platforms, linked to the wide variety of building heights, forms a coherent spreading, growing from the Bourelly road (R+ 4 = building C, D, E) towards the heights of the terrain to the east (R+ 7 and R+ 11 = building H, I) to conclude on building B (R+16), located on a shoulder overlooking the Maillans ravine, above the brick pavilion.
Originally, the pine forest is preserved, maintaining the agreeable character of the site, as for Bois Lemaître (900 dwellings, 1954). Sensitive to frequent fires in the area, some remains of the original pine forest.
The pine forest can also be considered as the garden around which the buildings are distributed. Today, the central void tempers the tension between the site and the built masses.
The buildings are designed on a model of stepped bars from R+4 to R+7, from R+9 to R+12 see R+16. The apartments are 10.50 m thick. The concrete structure is in columns and slabs on a comb partition organizing spans of 3.50 x 5.00 m and 2.65 x 5.00 m span. This typology is different from those produced at the time and which favor concrete sails in refends (Campaign Lévêque and Marine Bleue).
Beyond the program’s contingencies, the architecture seeks to establish scale relationships with the site. We have seen how the mass plan achieves this, with regard to buildings, it is through a certain abstraction that these relations are expressed.
The nine buildings are designed as solids, reduced to proportions (thickness, height, length). The adaptation to the declivities is done by platforms in stairs, but does not inﬂuent on the horizontal lines of acrotera, revealing a certain independence of the lines of sky in relation to the ground.
The gables, thin, are blind giving a tapered image: the author himself calls his buildings boards!
The structural expression is expressed by slabs of floors, support frames, refends and prefabricated lightening panels that form a horizontal bay. Loggias and cellars follow the same logic. The interpretation of the bay as an interval between various constructive elements, and no longer as a drilling of the wall, draws a modular grid that makes disappear any functional expression of the facades (living rooms, kitchens and bedrooms), in favour of the building as a solid built. This constructive, uncluttered rationalism, marked by regularity, makes Kalliste Park a significant example of the International Style.
born in 1925, student of G. Castel and Lemaresquier, is of the generation of architects trained in the immediate post-war period.
Author of major housing programs, most often private (the Saint-Georges in 1962), he remained faithful to a rational architecture, where the structures are expressed by rigorous outlines and imbued with the necessity of prefabrication.
Kalliste Park, 1958, 800 homes,
La Granière in 1961, 445 dwellings in prefabricated panels Castel Roc in 1973 or Le Mail in 1974.
For La Benausse and La Parade, he created three-dimensional prefabricated panels.
© Thierry Durousseau, 2004-2005