If the investigations on architecture of the second twentieth century are now about ten years old, this heritage remains largely less recognized by the edility and the public, hence the interest of the censuses and monographs proposed here. Logically, after the census phase, which delimited the corpus of ensembles and residencies in Marseilles in its extension, the aim was to reduce their contours in order to develop a greater understanding, formalized by the monograph sheets. By definition, they reflect only one object of the corpus, but all the monographs thus constitute a collection covering a series of similar objects allowing the construction of typologies, classifications and comparisons.
1.1518 - The Aygalades
Les Aygalades, 15th arrondissement
Literature references: 20th century heritage, domestic architecture
X Edition directory number: 1518, p 45. 2005
Conception & writing T. Durousseau arch. 2007
designation: The Aygalades
Traverse des Laitiers, Saint-Barnabé 13015
Lambert 3: latitude 3.03049; longitude 43.3515
Access: metro no. 2: Bougainville
bus 70: Canebière - Saint-Exupery, bus 30: Bougainville - La Savine
Owner: OPAC Sud, 80 rue Albe, 13234 Marseille Cedex 4
program: Housing group of 598 housing units.
Contracting authority: Office Public d'Habitations à Loyer Modéré des Bouches-du-Rhône.
Set of 18 buildings.
dates, authors: Building Permit 1961, delivery 1965.
Jean Rozan and Henri Faure-Ladreyt, architects.
Company, Travaux du Midi, FIORIO process.
site: South of the village of Aygalades. Altitude 78.00 to 89.00 m, slope towards the south-west. Residential area E on the Master Urban Plan of 1949.
mass plane: Composition on both sides of the highway, bars, plots and bars distributed according to the site. Trimming: R+1 strips, R+13 bar, R+8 studs.
frame: FIORIO construction process. Prefabricated wall and floor panel, incorporating hollow brick elements. Good general condition. Rehabilitation 1982-85, Claude Gros, architect.
sources: AD: 2071 W 17 (49.790), 165 W 202, 696, 559, 7 FTE 326-330
Bruno Vaissière, Construction Deconstruction, Ed. Picard, 1988
The district of Aygalades is one of the exceptional terroirs of the Marseilles bastides, favored by the abundance of stream waters that cross the nearby cluse of the village. The bastides that resisted the different subdivisions became the large land units from 1960. Although bought from the Shell oil company, the eight hectares of land are detached from a bastide at the bottom of the village. The land is crossed by the north motorway of Marseille, in embankment on this section.
Finally, when the French returned from Algeria, the operation was classified as aAccelerated housing to shorten administrative delays (prior agreement, over-the-counter procurement) and related to the use of an approved prefabrication process.
The motorway is without doubt one of the determining elements of the mass plan that deals with this gap between the two parts of the project.
As often at Rozan, the complex uses several types of buildings distributed here, in divergent composition open to the sea to the southwest.
On the top of the grounds, a terrace is lined with large bars of 4 and 13 floors with walk-in shops connected by a continuous awning.
In the center of the device are three folded bars, two levels occupied by large dwellings.
Bordering the operation, plots of four apartments per floor and eight floors are arranged in redents. The southern part of the highway consists of five plots on the same diagram.
Henri Faure-Ladreyt is undoubtedly the real author of the project whose architectural writing is different from that of J. Rozan, who is approaching the eighties. The logic of parallelepiped volumes is followed by treatments of facades that split scales or refer to new graphic arrangements. A new plastic reality appeared in the 1960s with architects such as R. Anger and P. Puccinelli whose influence was felt here.
During the 1982 rehabilitation, the large bar lost mask panels about which Bruno Vayssière, in Construction-deconstruction, evokes façades realized in the mode of the musical score For the plots, the alternating windows and the play of the lighters draw Grecians splitting the scale of each building. Here we can see a kind of drawing applied to a constructive system seeking to show a certain variety of appearance from a repetitive element.
The FIORIO process developed in 1947 by an Aude company was developed by Travaux du Midi in 1961.
Implemented in fixed plants (Plan de Campagne and Aubagne) on horizontal moulds, panels of about ten m2, integrate ceramic elements between a bed of plaster and a casting of fine concrete. The ceramic elements form bulkhead beams and their intervals of ribs; the connections between panels are made by keying. The advantage is the lightness of the panel and a certain thermal quality due to the alveoli of the bricks. The Plan de Campagne factory will produce the entire Aygalades shipyard. Flaws in cracking and increased thermal requirements will overcome the process, after a good ten years in the service of housing models, student residences and hospitals.
The technical problems of the Aygalades will not be without consequences on the rozan family and the great rehabilitation of the eighties remains fairly faithful to the original program.
Jean Rozan (1887-1977),
At the age of 21, he chose to study architecture at the Beaux-Arts in Paris.
The war interrupted his studies, he completed his diploma in 1919. Installed in Marseille in 1920, he built the offices of the Compagnie Paquet and the Gendarmerie barracks of Cap Janet.
In 1936, with the nationalization of aeronautics, he built the SNCASE Green Factories around the Étang de Berre, in which Jean Prouvé participated.
He will also carry out the TSF relay of the Réaltor, the soufﬂerie of the laboratory of Mechanics of Fluids and the biochemistry institute of Saint-Charles.
Winner, with Castel, Allard, and Gensollen of the competition for the Pavillon de la Provence (International Exhibition of 1937), he became architect of the Chamber of Commerce then in 1948 architect of the Comité Interprofessionnel de Logement des Bouches-du-Rhône.
After the war, he rebuilt the base of Notre-Dame de La Garde, partially destroyed during the fighting.
From the 1950s onwards, it carried out major social housing programmes, including:
La Blancarde, 80 accommodations for the CIL, 1952,
La Marine Blanche, 120 units with B. Martin Chave, 1953,
Lou Trioulet, 257 dwellings for the departmental OPHLM with P. Faure-Ladreyt, 1954,
La Paquerette, 1956,
La Résidence Les Rosiers, 727 accommodations for the CIL, 1957,
Mazargues 300 dwellings for the departmental OPHLM with P. Faure Ladreyt, 1957,
Les Tilleuls, 391 dwellings for the departmental OPHLM, 1958,
Les Olives, 431 dwellings for the departmental OPHLM, 1960.
As Group Leader of the Industrial Sector:
The Blue Navy, 788 homes, 1958, and
Lévêque Campaign, 806 homes, 1959,
Prado Parc, 245 units with P. Faure Ladreyt, 1961,
Les Aygalades, 598 units for the departmental OPHLM with P. Faure-Ladreyt, 1965.
© Thierry Durousseau, 2004-2005