If the investigations on architecture of the second twentieth century are now about ten years old, this heritage remains largely less recognized by the edility and the public, hence the interest of the censuses and monographs proposed here. Logically, after the census phase, which delimited the corpus of ensembles and residencies in Marseilles in its extension, the aim was to reduce their contours in order to develop a greater understanding, formalized by the monograph sheets. By definition, they reflect only one object of the corpus, but all the monographs thus constitute a collection covering a series of similar objects allowing the construction of typologies, classifications and comparisons.
1.1427 - Les Rosiers
Saint-Gabriel, outside the city centre
Literature references: 20th century heritage, domestic architecture
X edition directory number: 1427, p 40. 2005
Label Patrimoine du XXe siècle, 2006
Conception & writing T. Durousseau arch. 2007
designation: Les Rosiers Residence
3, traverse des Rosiers, quartier Saint-Gabriel 13014
Lambert 3: latitude 3.04975; longitude 43.3215
Access: bus 31: Gambetta - Les Aygalades, bus 33: Gambetta - Saint-Jérôme
Owner: Union of Co-owners of Roses, Buildings I1, Roses, 04 91 96 18 96
Trustee: Cogefim Fouques, 04 96 19 05 05
program: Large Ensemble little equipped with some shops.
Contracting authority: Société Anonyme Immobilière pour favoriser l'Accession à la Propriété (SIFAP) issue de la Caisse Interprofessionnelle du Logement 13.
Program of 727 housing units, set of 13 buildings belonging to three different types. Proximity to school and commercial facilities.
dates, authors: Initial CP: 1954. Inauguration: May 1957.
Jean Rozan, architect with Nemoz Poulaillon.
General Enterprises, Bruno Rostand and Scalabrino.
site: Southeast slope of Saint-Gabriel, facing the Belle de Mai, east of Bon Secours, site overlooking the creeks of Sainte-Marthe and Plombière. Altitude between 41.00 and 54.00 m (ridge line). Initial land 7.7 ha. Former horticultural bastide. Residential area of discontinuous order, E of the Master Planning Plan of 1949.
mass plane: Large set, signal from the Paris' path lines, the tallest buildings occupy the ridge. Outdoor areas not well maintained and aged.
Spreading: 2 large bars of R+12, three bars in offset blocks R+10 and R+11, eight low blocks of R+2 and R+3. Facilities in R0: shops and social center.
frame: Constructions on posts of 3.40 m maximum. Facades divided according to overlapping registers marked by passageways, still very HBM writing. Average general condition, lack of recent maintenance.
sources: AM: 969 W 27 - AD: 2071 W 7 (24.115), 165 W 32
The South, 23 May 1957
La Marseillaise, 23 May 1957
Marseille Magazine no. 37
TPFE: T42, and To not end the big sets, Mounira Allaoui, ENS Architecture, 2006
The land on the hillsides between the creeks of Plombières and Sainte-Marthe, are occupied by the horticultural campaign of Rosiers with alley, basin and irrigation channel.
Planning took these slopes into account early on, the pre-war period saw the construction of the HBM Burel and the Paul Strauss group, and Gaston Castel was in charge. Their density must have surprised them then; cities in the middle of the countryside.
After the war, the site will be the subject of urban expansion plans: Saint-Gabriel is declared of public utility as a compensation district for the victims of the Old Port. Located within reach of workplaces in order to minimize transport, large properties are available there, suitable for the residence: close to the city and easy to service, well exposed, quiet with planted spaces.
As early as 1949, against the backdrop of Plan d'Urbanisme Directeur, it is planned to build and, Jean de Mailly gives a detailed plan in 1951, between Plombières and Le Canet, with very important built impacts.
In the spring of 1953, the Plan Courant sought to promote the rapid and massive construction of new housing.
Special benefits are granted to purchasers of land who undertake to develop standard-plan residential premises that can be resold or leased for small amounts. For the first time the Common Plan linked a land law, a method of financing and a standardized programming.
In addition, it will lead to a compulsory contribution by companies to the construction effort. They will now have to devote 1% of their payroll to housing their employees. Interprofessional Housing Funds (CIL) will develop rapidly. In Marseille, J. Granjon and M. Fraissinet launch the largest operation in the region with 727 housing units, via the Société Anonyme Immobilière to Promote Homeownership. The CIL program is dedicated to RATVM, Unipol Oil Mill and Ship Repair personnel.
The mass plan is very articulated, bordered to the south by small rational blocks with external distribution aligned in saw tooth. Five large buildings with a maximum of 12 floors are divided into two areas. To the west, on the crest of the terrain, two bars form a powerful line of sky; at right angles, three other buildings arranged in rows make the center of the program. All these buildings have in common to be served by the network of wide passageways connected to elevators and stairs.
Indeed, the design of these buildings is made not as a stacking of floors, but as a superposition of rows of three and four floors with cellars below and apartments above. The slices are thus separated by a row of cellars opening on very wide passageways (the texts speak of platforms) where the elevators stop and where end the stairs leading to the three floors of each block.
The path to enter your home passes by an elevator, crosses passageways that overlook the other buildings and, finally, climbs an open staircase most of the time on the other side of the building. This movement, these movements in open spaces form a real architectural walk.
The two types of buildings differ according to their distribution. The highest exposed to the wind open their passageways on the only sheltered side, to the east. The other three stagger their blocks of dwellings with alternating blocks in redents: sometimes to the north, sometimes to the south, increasing the variation of the points of view on the buildings, including the building itself-even, and amplifying the effect of walking with changing prospects according to the point of the passageway where one is.
We are here in a typical case of large ensemble, whose repetition is one of the factors of uniformity. In general, the architectures are related to it by playing the eye of scenery, here it is the course that plays of the variety of situation with as theater the architecture in the movement of the spectator. The space here is cinematic modernity.
From such a spatial device, a certain idea of urban plasticity, the decoration of architecture, has no place only in the single succession of full or transparent lightnings of balconies participating in a writing, after all, quite classical. The structure in slab posts allows to envisage large typological updates.
The spatial design of the buildings, which was first carried out by J. Rozan on La Paquerette, will not be without influence on the work of G. Candilis when he builds on a nearby plot and when he develops later, with Team X, spatial distributions by passageways and assemblies in redents.
Jean Rozan (1887-1977)
entered the School of Fine Arts in 1909 and worked in the Sénès and Heraud workshops. The war interrupted his studies, he was an officer on the Salonika front in 1916. Graduated at the end of the first world war, he moved to Marseille in 1920.
He was an architect of the Chamber of Commerce in 1936, he was responsible for the SNCASE Green Factories in Marignane. He was the winner of the Pavillon de Provence for the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris.
He designed the offices of the Paquet Company and those of the Compagnie de Navigation Mixte, the Cap Janet gendarmerie, the ancillary buildings of the Notre-Dame de la Garde Basilica and a number of scientific and technical buildings.
After the war he was architect of the CIL and carried out the first operations in Plan Courant.
He is the author of the Trioulet in 1954, Mazargues in 1957, he is appointed group leader of the Industrial Sector for Marseille (Blue Navy, Lévêque Campaign, Frais Vallon). After 1955, with operations Million, it will develop an intense activity around the very economical housing (The Lindens, The Olives).
© Thierry Durousseau, 2004-2005