If the investigations on architecture of the second twentieth century are now about ten years old, this heritage remains largely less recognized by the edility and the public, hence the interest of the censuses and monographs proposed here. Logically, after the census phase, which delimited the corpus of ensembles and residencies in Marseilles in its extension, the aim was to reduce their contours in order to develop a greater understanding, formalized by the monograph sheets. By definition, they reflect only one object of the corpus, but all the monographs thus constitute a collection covering a series of similar objects allowing the construction of typologies, classifications and comparisons.
1.1357 to 59 - Olive trees B,C Ch. Rougny Villecroze
the ZUP, 13th district, northeast of Marseille
Literature references: 20th century heritage, domestic architecture
X edition directory no. 1357/1358/1359, p. 37. 2005
Conception & writing T. Durousseau arch. 2007
designation: Les Oliviers B and C, Charles Rougny (D), Paul Villecroze (E)
traverse Saint-Paul, quartier Malpassé 13013
Lambert: Lat. 3.07609; Long. 43.3311
Access: bus no. 32: Canebière Bourse - La Batarelle Boiseraie, bus no. 32bis: Canebière Bourse - Facultés Saint-Jérôme, bus no. 38: metro Bougainville - metro Malpassé
Owner: Habitat Marseille Provence, 25 avenue de Frais Vallon, 13013, Marseille
program: Housing group of 822 dwellings.
Contracting authority: Office public d'HLM de la ville de Marseille.
Group of 4 buildings.
dates, authors: Building Permits 1964 . Compliance 1971.
Marius David, Robert Lange, Albert Michel, architects.
Company, Auxiliary Company .
site: South-east of the park of Font Obscure, under the channel of Marseille, slightly sloping ground following the south-east direction. Altitude between 101.00 and 90.00 mZone is ZUP #1 - Sector L.
mass plane: The repetition of four large squared models defined a mass plane out of its context generating oversized spaces only in relation to the proportions of the buildings.
Spreading from R+8 to R+14. The initial plan of the ZUP projected low and curvilinear buildings on this site.
frame: Constructive system inherited from a model already developed by SOMATRA. Structure of concrete slits on spans of 3.00 to 5.95 m. Facades of washed gravel floors and pebbles returned to the ground floor. Good general condition.
sources: AD: 2071 W 39 (97.231)
Le Méridional, Monday 18 January 1971
The areas to be urbanized in priority (ZUP) were created in 1958 to encourage the creation, outside of parcel constraints, of new neighbourhoods. Housing, but also shops and equipment are distributed according to normative grids in these new territories.
The ZUP no. 1 of Marseille or ZUP of Canet, has its premises in the plans of Jean de Mailly around 1953. Guillaume Gillet drew the composition in 1960. The parcel consolidation specific to the ZUP will lead to use the land acquired on the right of way of the second ring road initiated in 1931 in the Greber-Castel plan. The western part of the ZUP will be devoted to the absorption, by the Logirem, of the large slums occupying the site mainly on the Busserine, Font Vert or La Benausse.
Later, the eastern part, Saint-Jérôme and Malpassé, almost exclusive property of the Municipal Office (Habitat Marseille Provence), is the result of the general densification of the project. If we look at the model, or the plans at the passage of the 1970s, we find typologies of buildings rather characterized: in the south center island N, the three towers of 100 m in windmill wings. On the northern (N) and eastern (L) sectors, the plans alternate point elements, which are none other than the towers of A. Devin (Cyprès, Paul Trompette), and elements in the form of a lying T, oriented according to the cardinal points.
Very precisely on the sector L, the composition of the island organizes two towers, school equipment and four buildings in T. It can be concluded that these particular buildings, and repetitive belong to the lexicon of the chief architect, G. Gillet and that he is going to make them realized as a model in the late sixties; this is evidenced by the contract renewal file. They form the constellation of Oliviers B&C, Charles Rougny and Paul Villecroze.
What emerges from these buildings is above all the very large scale. With a hundred meters long and 40 m wide at the top, heights between 9 and 14 levels, we are dealing with large volumes that contrast with the surrounding buildings. Their distribution in squadrons determines intervals of about 120 m, spaces of one hectare easily occupied by school equipment.
This will include a school group, a double college (Rostand and Renoir), a small shopping centre and three K-style towers built by Stribik architects, each with 100 units. The whole is bordered to the north by the 120 m wide gap of the boulevard Salvador Allende, concluded by an important roundabout. To the south, groups from Parc Corot and Saint-Just-Bellevue surround this large urban network.
The T-shaped building consists of two separate components that are attached to a crossing. The ground floor is occupied by cellars reinforcing the defensive character of the building. On the one hand, there is on the longer part an addition of stairwells distributing two apartments per floor on 8 to 9 levels. The apartments of 3 and 4 rooms or 4 and 5 rooms, all through, have a frame in refends of 5.95 and 3.00 m of reach, the sheaths are grouped between the kitchens and the sanitary, limiting the networks.
On the other hand, the square element, of 14 floors on the ground floor, distributes to each floor 8 small dwellings (2 and 3 rooms) from a central corridor. The construction frame is shorter at 3.30 m for apartments with a simple east or west orientation which is not the best solution in our latitudes. South of this square return, the gable is closed, only the fire escape has windows. The model was well thought out for the Paris region.
The self-supporting facades are thermally insulated and finished in washed, beige-brown gravel. Again, the formula is not local. This aspect will be a signature of G. Gillet on the ZUP since he imposes it at the western entrance, for the Massalia Jaurès operation, and that we find it at the eastern entrance, on the folded bar of Oliviers A.
The buildings will be inaugurated in January 1971, several months ahead of expectations, by Mayor Gaston Defferre and Jean-Claude Gaudin then municipal councillor, and in the presence of Charles Rougny former president of the Municipal Office, whose name will be given to one of the buildings.
What remains is above all the monumental scale that generates very vast spaces preventing any real space of proximity. At the bottom of the buildings, where the cellars are located, the parking areas are necessarily extensive, everything is on the scale of the buildings, hybrids between tower and bar, which have the greatest difficulty in establishing links between them and with other programs.
From the roundabout of the avenue S. Allende, when we find ourselves facing the highest parts of the buildings, arranged frontal, we cannot help but think of an orderly squadron of identical and haughty war machines.
architect, born in 1909 in Marseille, graduated in 1936. He signs a diverse work, his son must already participate in the projects in the seventies, a grandson then studies as an architect.
He was co-author in Marseille of the Grand Saint-Giniez with Bremond and J. Crozet in 1959, and of the Dromel park in 1963.
He will be associated with R. Lange and A. Michel for Corot Park, a ZUP waterfront operation.
architect, from Marseilles, is exactly contemporary with Mr. David. He created for Coder the Saint-Marcel low-income housing projects in 1955, he built in Châteauneuf-les-Martigues (1960), Martigues, la Ferrière (1961), Châteaurenard (1962), Rognonnas (1963) but also a number of buildings in Marseille including the Parc Corot.
of which we have few biographical references was known in the profession for its involvement in the pension funds of architects. He was present in Marseille on La Pauline in 1957 with P. Averous, G. Delbes, L. Olmeta and M. Scialom.
He was associated with M. Graveleau for Sainte-Geneviève in 1961 and Massalia-Jaurès with G. Carta, E. Gardeil and M. Scialom in 1969.
© Thierry Durousseau, 2004-2005