If the investigations on architecture of the second twentieth century are now about ten years old, this heritage remains largely less recognized by the edility and the public, hence the interest of the censuses and monographs proposed here. Logically, after the census phase, which delimited the corpus of ensembles and residencies in Marseilles in its extension, the aim was to reduce their contours in order to develop a greater understanding, formalized by the monograph sheets. By definition, they reflect only one object of the corpus, but all the monographs thus constitute a collection covering a series of similar objects allowing the construction of typologies, classifications and comparisons.
8.0719 - CLI rue de Suez
entrance of the port, due west on the bay, the 7th district
Literature references: 20th century heritage, domestic architecture
X edition directory no. 0719, p. 13. 2005
Label Patrimoine du XXe siècle, 2006
Conception & writing T. Durousseau arch. 2007
designation: CLI rue de Suez, 13,15 &17 rue de Suez, quartier du Pharo 13007
Lambert 3: lat. 3. 2127; long. 43.1728
Access: metro 1: La Timone - La Rose
metro 2: Bougainville - Sainte-Marguerite
bus no. 81: Saint-Just - Le Pharo, bus no. 83: métro rond-point du Prado - Joliette
Owner: Syndicate of Co-owners
program: Urban building of 65 apartments, shops and garages.
dates, authors: Building Permits 1965. Delivery 1972.
Client: Compagnie Lyonnaise Immobilière.
Atelier Delta architect: Pierre Averous, Yves Bonnel, Louis Dallest, Raymond Perrachon, Bernard Tarrazi.
Companies: SGTBA, Balancy and Briare.
site: Central island in the eastern part of the Catalans subdivision. Land with low east-west elevation between 7.5 and 9.00 m, area of 1300 m2. Housing Area B (urban fabric) on the Master Urban Plan of 1949.
mass plane: Alignment profile on rue de Suez and Charras, corner treated in volume.
Spreading between R+6, R+8 with recessed floor on street.
frame: Buildings in reinforced concrete frame, very glazed entrances. Very good general condition.
sources: AD: 28 (75.277), 77 J 258-274, 564-570
Prado Magazine No. 9, 1973
M. H. Biget, J. Sbriglio, Guide d'architecture, Marseille, Parenthèse, 1993
The Pharo district was only urbanized at the end of the 19th century with a subdivision of the grounds of the old infirmaries abandoned since the 17th century. After the war, the district was to be built in a dense manner, with a set of buildings, an American and modern image of a dynamic city. Fernand Pouillon will be in charge of studying a detailed urban planning plan on the site of the Catalans and the Pharo. He combines bars and towers in echo with the Tourette district that he is making. If the periphery of the subdivision does indeed see emerging half a dozen towers, the central part will maintain the grid of its streets and urban profiles to the alignment.
These post-haussmannian jigs naturally pose problems for modern constructions that rely on a certain freedom of form. Between the profiles on the public space and the rules of easements on court, here, rather narrow, the final project will go through several adaptations that explain the long duration of realization of the order of eight years for less than 100 dwellings.
The building consists of four separate stairwells, separated by an expansion joint. On Charras Street, the cages distribute two apartments per floor, through apartments with stays facing south on the courtyard. So the urban facade will be in the north. On the ground floor, the project plans to establish commercial activities on the ground floor alternating with the entrance halls. Before the return to Suez Street, a transparency allows access to the parking lot located in the basement as well as a level access with the courtyard, also entirely dedicated to vehicles, so very mineral.
On Suez Street, the stairwell, served by the courtyard, has six floors on a ground floor raised from the street and occupied by small dwellings.
The facade on rue Charras remains the most interesting, vertical, high and irregular yet composed on classical registers of base, full body and attic. The first reading of the distribution plans shows a structure of thin concrete walls whose spans are wide enough for the period. Hence the need to cross staves on the north shore by a bundle of additional support points consisting of thin sails of about one metre in length. This structural strip determines a new span, regulating the design of the façade.
On the plans, we can see that these segmental sails are associated with U-elements, serving as a closet and forming wall filling. The windows close the gaps still open and are located in the background of the walls of the frame. The thick wall device allows a certain latitude of composition by moving the filling element. The plans still show that the sails are highlighted by narrow glazing that reinforce the thickness of the facade. The result is a vertical façade due to the presence of segmental sails, hollow by the thickness of the filling elements and free by the variation of the placement of the filling closets.
The narrow glazings will not be realized, the verticals will be ensured by the repetition of the pattern on several floors, thus opening to a composition in superimposed registers.
On the ground floor, the structure appears on two floors as for a mezzanine, organizing the different levels of the street declivous. Above, appear the verticals hollowed out of the full body of facade finished by groupings of recessed windows disturbing the general order of the facade. All crowned by the heads of separative sails of terraces, francs, drawing a line of sky in sawtooth.
Finally the corner element, a true three-dimensional bollard, which by a simple set of balconies in successive corbelling concludes the facade of Rue Charras by a flared volume formed by stepped planes and vertical sails.
Pierre Averous, Bernard Tarrazi, Yves Bonnel, Louis Dallest, Raymond Perrachon
Pierre Averous, born in 1927 in Marseille, graduated in 1953.
From 1957, P. Averous joined forces with Maurice Scialom, which gave Marseille a number of achievements, such as:
Saint-Barthélémy, Picon-Busserine, 1962, with Bondon and Madeline,
Les Cèdres, 1965,
Val Pin and the American, 1968,
Massalia Jaurès, 1969,
Les Néreides, 1971.
In 1963 P. Averous, Y. Bonnel, L. Dallest and R. Perrachon joined forces in the Delta Workshop, later joined by B. Tarrazi. For twenty-five years, the group will carry out numerous urban planning studies, equipment and housing.
© Thierry Durousseau, 2004-2005