In 2011, the various cultural branches generated a total of €85bn and €40bn of gross value added (GVA). Cultural production can be divided into market output (€69bn) which comes from the sale of cultural goods and services by companies, and non-market output (€16bn), which, in accordance with current norms, corresponds to the production costs of public administration, institutions and associations within the cultural field.
The economic contribution of culture, expressed as a ratio between the gross value added for the cultural branches and that for all branches combined, was 2.2% in 2011. This does not take into account any indirect economic knockon effects or those generated by culture (tourism for example). Until 2003 the direct economic impact of the value of culture was increasing. It has been in decline since 2004, largely due to the marked downturn in activity within certain cultural industries such as press and book publishing and recorded music.
In 2011, the audiovisual sector (radio, film, television, video, recorded music) accounted for one quarter of cultural GVA. Performing arts and cultural heritage, predominantly non-market branches, concentrated 18% and 11% of cultural GVA respectively. The increased value of the share of performing arts over the last 15 years is primarily due to escalating prices in this sector. Conversely, books and newspapers only accounted for 15% of value-added in 2011, as compared with 26% in 1995. The other cultural branches (advertising agencies, architecture, visual arts, culture and education) together account for one third of cultural GVA.