|The Cucuteni Culture
(Eneolithic or Chalcolithic)
Setting : The Cucuteni culture extended from Romania to the southeast
of Transylvania to Moldavia, in the Moldavian Republic (Bessarabia), and
in the Ukraine up to the east of the Nipru.
Habitation : The dwellings, generally rectangular, were built at ground level and were laid out in lines or in concentric circles, testifying to the existence of pre-established construction plans. Some of these habitats, particularly in the east of the region, seem to comprise several hundreds of dwellings. These dwellings were built out of wood and a mixture of clay and straw, and, very rarely, out of stone.
Material Means : Most characteristic of this culture is its ceramics, probably fashioned with the aid of a primitive potter's wheel, and painted in a particular fashion. The decorations, at the beginning made up of incisions and grooves, later became monochromic then two-tone or tricolor, black, white and red. The lithic tools of bone and horn were rich and varied. In sculpture, their anthropomorphic figures were richly decorated, first with linear engravings and later painted motifs.
Female figures dominate.
Economics : The economy rests essentially agricultural. The importance of hunting and the breeding of animals depend on the environmental conditions.
Fishing and gathering are equally in evidence.
Funeral Rites : There have been no cemeteries discovered, only individual graves.
(phase A3) (origin : Frumusica, district : Neamt).